Health Registry Glossary

Terms

  • Allele - One of several alternative forms of a gene sequence at a specific Locus
  • Ataxia - The loss of voluntary coordinated movement of the body indicating an underlying neurologic issue.
  • Carrier - A dog that has only one copy of an abnormal gene for a recessive disease. Carriers are not typically expected to have any features of the disease but are at risk of passing on the disease to offspring if bred with another Carrier of the same condition.
  • Chromosome - An organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells which encodes most or all of the dog's genetic information. Each cell of the dog contains 78 chromosomes or 39 pairs.
  • Homozygous - Having identical alleles at a particular Locus
  • Inherited Genetic Diseases - diseases that can be passed from parent to offspring through reproduction.
  • Locus - The specific site of a gene on a Chromosome.
  • Mutation - The change from the normal to an altered form of a particular gene.
  • Myopathy - A muscular disease in which the muscle fibers do not function for any one of many reasons, resulting in muscular weakness
  • Phenotypic - The observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism, as determined by both genetic makeup and environmental influences. The expression of a specific trait, such as stature or blood type, based on genetic and environmental influences.

Tests

  • BAER - Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response - Hearing
  • CERF/CAER - Canine Eye Registry Foundation/OFA Eye Certification Registry - Vision
  • SCA - Spinocerebellar Ataxia - Neurologic
  • PLL - Primary Lens Luxation - Vision
  • DM - Canine Degenerative Myelopathy - Neurologic
  • HU - Hyperuricosuria - Kidney/li>
  • LOA - Late Onset Ataxia - Neurologic

Test Results

  • Clear/Normal - Indicates that testing found no indicators that the dog is a carrier or affected by the disease/condition being tested for.
  • Carrier - A dog that has only one copy of an abnormal gene for a recessive disease. Carriers are not typically expected to have any features of the disease but are at risk of passing on the disease to offspring if bred with another Carrier of the same condition.
  • Affected - the dog has two mutated copies of the gene and is at risk for developing the disease.
  • Normal By Descent (NBD) - means that either both the dam (mother) and sire (father) are both non-carriers or one parent and an ancestor of the other parent are both non-carriers. In the case of NBD, no actual test was performed.

    But what does NBD mean? When a dog tests Normal it means he is carrying two normal copies of the gene in question, therefore he can only pass on a normal copy. When two normal tested dogs are bred their off-spring will also carry two normal copies, hence the term NBD. However there's one important aspect being forgotten. This rule only holds true if you are using gene based testing. If you use marker tests or linkage tests you must test every generation. This is why AKC and OFA will only certify first generation NBD's from gene based testing and WILL NOT certify NBD's from marker and linkage testing.

    The JRT Health Registry only accepts test results from the University or Research facility that isolated the gene for the disease. We then accept NBD's when tested relatives provide the necessary proof of Normal linage for that offspring providing the test is also from the university that isolated the gene. So please remember if your terrier has been tested at a facility using marker/linkage tests you must test all of your offspring, as these tests are probability tests and the genes are subject to rearrange in sequencing in the next generation, therefore the offspring cannot be considered NBD's.